Making Murano glass.
Glass expert digs into secrets of historic Venetian processFebruary 04, 2016 1:25 AM EST
ALBANY, N.Y. (AP) — A modern-day glassblower believes he has unraveled the mysteries of Renaissance-era Venetian glassmaking, a trade whose secrets were so closely guarded that anyone who divulged them faced the prospect of death.
Today’s glassblowers work with methane-fired furnaces, electric-powered kilns, good lighting and proper ventilation. The craftsmen of Murano, an island near Venice, didn’t have such technology, yet they still turned out museum-worthy pieces known for their artistry and beauty, using techniques that remained exclusive for centuries.
Through years of researching Venetian glass collections at American and European museums and comparing the artifacts with more contemporary glasswork from Venice, plus his own experimentation and many trips to Italy, William Gudenrath has created an online resource he believes explains Venetian glassmakers’ methods.
“The Techniques of Renaissance Venetian Glassworking”…
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1 November – RAdm. “Tip” Merrill brought 4 light cruisers and 8 destroyers to shell Buka and Bonin. (See map). They then sped around Bougainville to Shortland Island. The Saratoga and Princeton hit airstrips in the north, while aircraft from as far away as Henderson Field on Guadalcanal, hit Buin.
The 3rd Marine Division of I Marine Amphibious Corps, under Lt. Gen. Vandergrift, landed smoothly at Cape Torokina on the west coast of Bougainville. Most of the Japanese 60,000-strong garrison was concentrated on the south of the island. Gen. Myakutake made the mistake of delaying an offensive and the Marines held off enemy patrols for weeks. Operation Galvanic commenced. The Japanese Combined Fleet of 10 ships, escorting over 1,000 troops, left Truk in response.
2 November – US Task Force 39 engaged in the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay against the…
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As my swimming experience testifies, habits can be deliberately planned and developed. So there must be something magic about repeated actions: When an action is repeated, we no long think it consciously; instead, we internalize it and code it into the brain as our second nature.
Here is my next planned habit: WRITING. Just I did with swimming, set the fixed time, do it every day, make it a routine. I will check out three weeks later.
[I-5, CA, 10/05/2011]